Publications

2019

  • P. Meyer, F. Korf, T. Steinbach, and T. C. Schmidt, “Simulation of Mixed Critical In-vehicular Networks,” in Recent Advances in Network Simulation, Springer, 2019, p. 317–345.
    [Bibtex]
    @incollection{mkss-smcin-19,
    title={Simulation of Mixed Critical In-vehicular Networks},
    author={Meyer, Philipp and Korf, Franz and Steinbach, Till and Schmidt, Thomas C},
    booktitle={Recent Advances in Network Simulation},
    pages={317--345},
    year={2019},
    publisher={Springer},
    eprinttype = {arxiv}
    eprint = {1808.03081},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-12842-5_10},
    abstract = {Future automotive applications ranging from advanced driver assistance to autonomous driving will largely increase demands on in-vehicular networks. Data flows of high bandwidth or low latency requirements, but in particular many additional communication relations will introduce a new level of complexity to the in-car communication system. It is expected that future communication backbones which interconnect sensors and actuators with Electronic Control Units (ECUs) in cars will be built on Ethernet technologies. However, signaling from different application domains demands for network services of tailored attributes, including real-time transmission protocols as defined in the Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) Ethernet extensions. These Quality of Service (QoS) constraints will increase network complexity even further. Event-based simulation is a key technology to master the challenges of an in-car network design. This chapter introduces the domain-specific aspects and simulation models for in-vehicular networks and presents an overview of the car-centric network design process. Starting from a domain-specific description language, we cover the corresponding simulation models with their workflows and apply our approach to a related case study for an in-car network of a premium car.}
    }
  • [PDF] T. Häckel, P. Meyer, F. Korf, and T. C. Schmidt, “Software-Defined Networks Supporting Time-Sensitive In-Vehicular Communication,” in Proc. of the IEEE 89th Vehicular Technology Conference: VTC2019-Spring, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{ hmks-snsti-19,
    author = {Timo H{\"a}ckel and Philipp Meyer and Franz Korf and
    Thomas C. Schmidt},
    title = {{Software-Defined Networks Supporting Time-Sensitive
    In-Vehicular Communication}},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE 89th Vehicular Technology Conference:
    VTC2019-Spring},
    location = {Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia},
    month = apr,
    year = 2019,
    publisher = {IEEE Press},
    address = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
    url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8746473},
    eprinttype = {arxiv},
    eprint = {1903.08039},
    abstract = {Future in-vehicular networks will be based on Ethernet.
    The IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) is a promising
    candidate to satisfy real-time requirements in future car
    communication. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) extends
    the Ethernet control plane with a programming option that
    can add much value to the resilience, security, and
    adaptivity of the automotive environment. In this work, we
    derive a first concept for combining Software-Defined
    Networking with Time-Sensitive Networking along with an
    initial evaluation. Our measurements are performed via a
    simulation that investigates whether an SDN architecture is
    suitable for time-critical applications in the car. Our
    findings indicate that the advanced control overhead of SDN
    can be added without a delay penalty for the TSN traffic
    when protocols are mapped properly.},
    langid = {english}
    }
  • [DOI] P. Meyer, T. Häckel, F. Korf, and T. C. Schmidt, “DoS Protection through Credit Based Metering – Simulation-Based Evaluation for Time-Sensitive Networking in Cars,” in Proceedings of the 6th International OMNeT++ Community Summit 2019, 2019, p. 52–59.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{ mhks-dpcbm-19,
    author = {Philipp Meyer and Timo H{\"a}ckel and Franz Korf and
    Thomas C. Schmidt},
    editor = {Meyo Zongo and Antonio Virdis and Vladimir Vesely and
    Zeynep Vatandas and Asanga Udugama and Koojana Kuladinithi
    and Michael Kirsche and Anna F{\"o}rster},
    title = {DoS Protection through Credit Based Metering -
    Simulation-Based Evaluation for Time-Sensitive Networking
    in Cars},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th International OMNeT++ Community
    Summit 2019},
    month = dec,
    year = 2019,
    pages = {52--59},
    volume = {66},
    publisher = {EasyChair},
    url = {https://easychair.org/publications/paper/BtKC},
    issn = {2398-7340},
    doi = {10.29007/pxrk},
    eprinttype = {arxiv},
    eprint = {1908.09646},
    abstract = {Ethernet is the most promising solution to reduce
    complexity and enhance the bandwidth in the next generation
    in-car networks. Dedicated Ethernet protocols enable the
    real-time aspects in such networks. One promising candidate
    is the IEEE 802.1Q Time-Sensitive Networking protocol
    suite. Common Ethernet technologies, however, increases the
    vulnerability of the car infrastructure as they widen the
    attack surface for many components. In this paper proposes
    an IEEE 802.1Qci based algorithm that on the one hand,
    protects against DoS attacks by metering incoming Ethernet
    frames. On the other hand, it adapts to the behavior of the
    Credit Based Shaping algorithm, which was standardized for
    Audio/Video Bridging, the predecessor of Time-Sensitive
    Networking. A simulation of this proposed Credit Based
    Metering algorithm evaluates the concept.},
    series = {EPiC Series in Computing},
    bibsource = {EasyChair, https://easychair.org},
    langid = {english}
    }
  • [DOI] T. Häckel, P. Meyer, F. Korf, and T. C. Schmidt, “SDN4CoRE: A Simulation Model for Software-Defined Networking for Communication over Real-Time Ethernet,” in Proceedings of the 6th International OMNeT++ Community Summit 2019, 2019, p. 24–31.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{ hmks-smsdn-19,
    author = {Timo H{\"a}ckel and Philipp Meyer and Franz Korf and
    Thomas C. Schmidt},
    editor = {Meyo Zongo and Antonio Virdis and Vladimir Vesely and
    Zeynep Vatandas and Asanga Udugama and Koojana Kuladinithi
    and Michael Kirsche and Anna F{\"o}rster},
    title = {{SDN4CoRE: A Simulation Model for Software-Defined
    Networking for Communication over Real-Time Ethernet}},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th International OMNeT++ Community
    Summit 2019},
    month = dec,
    year = 2019,
    pages = {24--31},
    volume = {66},
    publisher = {EasyChair},
    url = {https://easychair.org/publications/paper/1TnZ},
    issn = {2398-7340},
    doi = {10.29007/w71t},
    eprinttype = {arxiv},
    eprint = {1908.09649},
    abstract = {Ethernet has become the next standard for automotive and
    industrial automation networks. Standard extensions such as
    IEEE 802.1Q Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) have been
    proven to meet the real-time and robustness requirements of
    these environments. Augmenting the TSN switching by
    Software- Defined Networking functions promises additional
    benefits: A programming option for TSN devices can add much
    value to the resilience, security, and adaptivity of the
    environment. Network simulation allows to model highly
    complex networks before assembly and is an essential
    process for the design and validation of future networks.
    Still, a simulation environment that supports programmable
    real-time networks is missing. This paper fills the gap by
    sharing our simulation model for Software-Defined
    Networking for Communication over Real-Time Ethernet
    (SDN4CoRE) and present initial results in modeling
    programmable real-time networks. In a case study, we show
    that SDN4CoRE can simulate complex programmable real-time
    networks and allows for testing and verifying the
    programming of real-time devices.},
    series = {EPiC Series in Computing},
    bibsource = {EasyChair, https://easychair.org},
    langid = {english}
    }
  • [DOI] F. Langer, F. Schüppel, and L. Stahlbock, “Establishing an Automotive Cyber Defense Center,” in 17th escar Europe : embedded security in cars, , 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @incollection{lss-eacdc-19,
    author = {Falk Langer and Fabian Sch{\"u}ppel and Lukas Stahlbock},
    title = {{Establishing an Automotive Cyber Defense Center}},
    booktitle = {17th escar Europe : embedded security in cars},
    doi = {10.13154/294-6652},
    year = {2019},
    url = {http://hss-opus.ub.ruhr-unibochum.de/opus4/frontdoor/index/index/docId/6652},
    abstract = {As vehicles turn into human-transporting computers, more specific attention to the issue of long-term secure operation is needed. In order to prevent cyber-attacks on the fleet, monitoring the internal state of the individual vehicles’ IT-infrastructure is required.
    In this paper we provide a suggestion on how vehicles could be managed over the course of their lifetime. Establishment of an Automotive Cyber Defense Center is a key factor of ensuring the secure operation of the vehicle fleet by an OEM. Within this paper we demonstrate why establishing such a center is necessary, what kind of security operations it needs to perform and what stakeholders are involved in ensuring secure operation of public road transport.
    Since Cyber Defense Centers and the required technology are well-established in classical IT-infrastructure, we propose an architecture for the automotive domain which uses these technologies, highlighting the gaps in transitioning from operating a network to operation of a vehicle fleet.
    The most important difference being the distributed, inhomogeneous and nomadic nature of a vehicle fleet. In order to overcome this gap we provide an exemplary implementation, which aims to make security relevant information available for usage within a Cyber Defense Center, using IoT-technology.},
    langid = {english}
    }
  • M. Cakir, T. Häckel, S. Reider, P. Meyer, F. Korf, and T. C. Schmidt, “A QoS Aware Approach to Service-Oriented Communication in Future Automotive Networks,” in 2019 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC), 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{ chrmk-qosso-19,
    author = {Mehmet Cakir and Timo H\"ackel and Sandra Reider and Philipp Meyer and Franz Korf and Thomas C. Schmidt},
    title = {{A QoS Aware Approach to Service-Oriented Communication in Future Automotive Networks}},
    booktitle = {2019 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC)},
    location = {Los Angeles, California, USA},
    month = apr,
    year = 2019,
    eprinttype = {arxiv},
    eprint = {1911.01805},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/1911.01805},
    abstract = {Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is about to enter automotive networks based on the SOME/IP middleware and an Ethernet high-bandwidth communication layer. It promises to meet the growing demands on connectivity and flexibility for software components in modern cars. Largely heterogeneous service requirements and time-sensitive network functions make Quality-of-Service (QoS) agreements a vital building block within future automobiles. Existing middleware solutions, however, do not allow for a dynamic selection of QoS.
    This paper presents a service-oriented middleware for QoS aware communication in future cars. We contribute a protocol for dynamic QoS negotiation along with a multi-protocol stack, which supports the different communication classes as derived from a thorough requirements analysis. We validate the feasibility of our approach in a case study and evaluate its performance in a simulation model of a realistic in-car network. Our findings indicate that QoS aware communication can indeed meet the requirements, while the impact of the service negotiations and setup times of the network remain acceptable provided the cross-traffic during negotiations stays below 70% of the available bandwidth.},
    langid = {english}
    }

2018

  • [DOI] T. Steinbach, Ethernet-basierte Fahrzeugnetzwerkarchitekturen für zukünftige Echtzeitsysteme im Automobil, Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg, 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @Book{ s-ebfze-18,
    author = {Till Steinbach},
    title = {{Ethernet-basierte Fahrzeugnetzwerkarchitekturen f{\"u}r
    zuk{\"u}nftige Echtzeitsysteme im Automobil}},
    month = oct,
    year = 2018,
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    isbn = {978-3-658-23499-7},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-23500-0},
    abstract = {Das Fahrzeugkommunikationsnetzwerk von Automobilen
    befindet sich derzeit in einem starken Wandel. Neue
    Anwendungen aus den Bereichen der Fahrerassistenzsysteme
    und des Infotainments sowie insbesondere das automatisierte
    und autonome Fahren haben einen weit h{\"o}heren Bedarf an
    leistungsf{\"a}higen Kommunikationsverbindungen, als die
    bisher im Automobil eingesetzten Technologien garantieren
    k{\"o}nnen. Dies gilt insbesondere f{\"u}r neue Sensorik
    wie beispielsweise Kameras, Radar und Laser-Scanner, welche
    die Umwelt mit einem hohen Detailgrad aufzeichnen und
    daf{\"u}r h{\"o}here Bandbreiten als bisherige Systeme
    {\"u}bertragen m{\"u}ssen. Echtzeit-Ethernet ist die
    favorisierte L{\"o}sung f{\"u}r die Herausforderungen
    zuk{\"u}nftiger Fahrzeugnetzwerke; es wurden jedoch, trotz
    des Bekenntnisses gro{\ss}er Automobilhersteller zu
    Automotive-Ethernet, bisher keine umfassenden und auf
    realistischen Datenverkehrsmodellen basierenden
    Architekturanalysen durchgef{\"u}hrt. Die vorliegende
    Arbeit leistet einen Beitrag zum Design und zur Bewertung
    neuer Ethernet-basierter Fahrzeugnetzwerkarchitekturen. Sie
    liefert Werkzeuge f{\"u}r die simulationsbasierte Analyse
    und Beurteilung von Netzwerkarchitekturen und evaluiert
    anhand konkreter Anwendungen, beispielsweise aus dem
    Bereich der Sensorfusion, und realistischer auf realen
    Verkehrsdaten aufbauender Szenarien m{\"o}gliche
    Netzwerkdesigns und Konfigurationen. Dabei wird auch der
    schrittweiser {\"U}bergang von Legacy-Technologien hin zu
    einem rein Echtzeit-Ethernet-basierten Fahrzeugnetzwerk
    ber{\"u}cksichtigt. Ein schrittweise Migrationspfad ist
    eine wichtige Anforderung f{\"u}r einen erfolgreichen
    Einsatz im Automobil. Auf Basis der hierbei aus
    analytischen Modellen sowie Simulationsstudien und einem
    realen Fahrzeugprototyp gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden
    Designempfehlungen f{\"u}r die Entwicklung zuk{\"u}nftiger
    Ethernet-basierter Fahrzeugnetzwerke ausgesprochen.
    Methodisch kommt in der vorliegenden Arbeit insbesondere
    die Netzwerksimulation zum Einsatz. F{\"u}r die Bewertung
    neuer Fahrzeugnetzwerkarchitekturen werden Werkzeuge zur
    Simulation und Analyse zuk{\"u}nftiger heterogener
    Echtzeit-Ethernet-Backbones entwickelt. Damit stellt die
    Arbeit eine leistungsf{\"a}hige
    Open-Source-Simulationsumgebung f{\"u}r die Analyse
    zuk{\"u}nftiger Fahrzeugnetzwerke bereit, welche in
    Forschung und Entwicklung frei verwendet und
    weiterentwickelt werden kann. Mithilfe eines
    Prototypfahrzeugs werden die in der Simulation sowie in
    analytischen Modellen untersuchten Aspekte in einer realen
    Fahrzeugumgebung {\"u}berpr{\"u}ft. Die Untersuchung im
    Prototyp weist die Realisierbarkeit der entwickelten
    Ans{\"a}tze nach und zeigt auf, an welcher Stelle
    Herausforderungen und Handlungsbedarfe bei der
    Implementierung der entwickelten Konzepte bestehen. Die
    Ergebnisse der Untersuchung f{\"u}hren zu
    Designempfehlungen und Best Practices f{\"u}r
    zuk{\"u}nftige Backbone-Netzwerke im Automobil. Diese
    umfassen unter anderem das Kommunikationsdesign, den
    Einsatz von Echtzeitverkehrsklassen, die Optimierung von
    Hintergrunddatenverkehr und die Entwicklung geeigneter
    Netzwerktopologien. Es wird gezeigt, dass sich die im
    Backbone-Netzwerk erreichbaren Kennzahlen unter Einhaltung
    der Designempfehlungen um ein Vielfaches verbessern lassen.},
    langid = {ngerman}
    }